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     Caught in a squeeze between the health needsof aging populations on one hand and the financialcrisis on the other, governments everywhere arelooking for ways to slow the growth in health-carespending. Increasingly, they are looking to the generic-drugs (普通藥物) industry as a savior. InNovember Japan's finance ministry issued a report complaining that the country's use ofgenerics was less than a third of that in America or Britain. In the same month Canada'scompetition watchdog criticized the country's pharmacies for failing to pass on the savingsmade possible by the use of generic drugs. That greed, it reckoned, costs taxpayers nearlyC$1 billion a year.

  Then on November 28th the European Commission issued the preliminary results of itsyear-long probe into drug giants in the European Union. The report reached a damning~,though provisional, conclusion: the drugs firms use a variety of unfair strategies to protecttheir expensive drugs by delaying the entry of cheaper generic opponents. Though this initialreport does not carry the force of law (a final report is due early next year), it has caused muchcontroversy. Neelie Kroes, the EU's competition commissioner, says she is ready to takelegal action if the evidence allows.

  One strategy the investigators criticize is the use of the "patent duster( 專利群)". A firmkeen to defend its drug due to go off-patent may file dozens or hundreds of new patents,often of dubious merit, to confuse and terrify potential copycats and maintain itsmonopoly. An unnamed drugs firm once took out 1,300 patents across the EU on a singledrug. The report also suggests that out-of-court settlements between makers of patenteddrags and generics firms may be a strategy used by the former to delay market entry by thelatter.

  According to EU officials, such misdeeds -have delayed the arrival of generic competitionand the accompanying savings. On average, rite report estimates, generics arrived sevenmonths after a patented drug lost its protection, though where the drug was a big seller thelag was four months. The report says taxpayers paid about q 3 billion more than they wouldhave-had the generics gone on sale immediately.

  But hang on a minute, Though many of the charges of bad behavior leveled at thepatented-drugs industry by EU investigators may well be true, the report seems to let thegenerics industry off the hook(鉤子) too lightly. After all, if the drugs giants stand accused, ineffect, of bribing opponents to delay the launch of cheap generics, shouldn't the companiesthat accepted those "bribes" also share the blame?

1.[單選題]Which of the following accords with the author's view?
  • A.Charges on patented-drug industry are anything but true.
  • B.Generics industry is a sheer victim in the competition.
  • C.Only drug giants are to blame.
  • D.Exclusion of generics industry from taking responsibility is questionable.
  • 解題思路:觀點態度題。由定位句可知,作者認為歐盟調查員們對專利藥物行業的控訴是正確的,但不應讓普通制藥行業太輕易地逃脫責任,因為它們有可能接受了專利藥物行業的賄賂,因此作者認為普通藥物行業同樣需對此承擔責任,D)符合題意。由定位句可知,作者同意調查員們對專利藥物行業的看法,A)中的anythingbut true的說法太絕對,故排除;作者認為普通藥物行業也應該承擔責任,可見它并不完全是個受害者,也不應該僅僅譴責制藥大亨,故排除B)、C)。
2.[單選題]Why are governments around the world seeking ways to reduce their health-carespending?
  • A.They consider the generic-drugs industry as a savior.
  • B.They are under the double pressure of aging group and financial crisis.
  • C.Health-care spending has accounted too large proportion.
  • D.Health-care spending has cost taxpayers too much income.
  • 解題思路:推理判斷題。由定位句可知,各國政府一方面面臨老齡化人群的健康需求,另一方面受到金融危機的影響,所以都在尋求減少醫療保健開支的途徑,B)符合題意。第一段第二句提到they are looking to thegenetic-drugs industry as a savior,但是普通藥物只是各國政府減少開支的一個方法,并不是他們這么做的原因,故排除A);C)的說法在文中沒有提及;本段最后一句提到That greed…costs taxpayers nearlyC $1 billion a year.這里是說藥店的貪心導致納稅人受損,并不是說保健花費的問題,故排除D)。
3.[單選題]On average, the genetics will be delayed to enter the market by __________.
  • A.seven months
  • B. three months
  • C.four months
  • D.eleven months
  • 解題思路:事實細節題。由定位句可知,平均來說,普通藥物要等專利藥物的專利保護失效7個月后才能上市,A)符合題意。B)、D)中的數字文中沒有提及;文中提到了four months,但指的是暢銷藥品被推遲的時間,而不是平均的,故排除C)。
4.[單選題]The investigators seriously condemned the drug firms for__________.
  • A.they do not let their opponents to resort to the comet
  • B.they use clusters of patents to protect their products
  • C.they bribe the cheaper generic opponents
  • D.trey do not pass on the savings made by use of generic drugs
  • 解題思路:推理判斷題。由定位句可知,調查員們嚴厲譴責藥品公司是因為其利用“專利群”這一策略,即為一個產品申請多項專利,B)符合題意。A)的表述在文中并未提及,故排除;最后一段最后一句雖然提到bribingopponents to delay the launch of cheap genetics,但是作者沒有說這是研究者們強烈譴責的方法,故排除C);第一段倒數第二句提到Canada’s competition watchdog criticized the country’spharmacies for failing to pass on the savings。可見這里受到譴責的是加拿大的藥店,不是所有藥品公司,故排除D)。
5.[單選題]What can we learn from the report issued by the European Commission?
  • A.Drug firm will use just ways to protect their drags.
  • B.Cheaper generic drugs are easy to enter market,
  • C.The report has come to an ultimate conclusion.
  • D.The final report may lead to commissioner's legal action.
  • 解題思路:事實細節題。定位句提到,11月28日歐洲委員會發布的一個初步調查報告,下文開始對該報告進行描述,由第二段最后一句Neelie Kroes,the EU's competition commissioner,says she is ready totake legal action if the evidence allows.可推斷如果證據充足,委員們會采取行動,D)符合題意。第二段第二句提到the drugs firms use a variety of unfair strategies to protect their expensive drugsby delaying the entry of cheaper generic opponents,可見藥物公司使用了不公平的競爭手段,推遲普通藥物的上市,故排除A)、B);該句前半句提到The report reached a damning,thoughprovisional,conclusion…,可見該報告的結論只是暫時的,并不是最終結論(ultimate conclusion),故排除C)。
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  • 參考答案:D,B,A,B,C